Russian Pronunciation: Stress Training

Welcome to the fourth step in learning to read Russian:

  1. Learn the Russian Alphabet 1: The Cyrillic Script
  2. Learn the Russian Alphabet 2: Italicized
  3. Native Russian Pronunciation 1: Five Difficulties Explained
    a. Stressed/Unstressed Vowel: A Quick Reference Guide
    b. Palatalization in Russian
    c. Special Pronunciations of the Letter {г}
    d. What is the elusive {ё}: fleeting letters
    e. Intonation
  4. Native Russian Pronunciation 2: Stress Training Exercises

Like English, Russian has both strong and weak vowels and their pronunciation is different. This guide will help you become accustomed to the patterns through a low pressure step-by-step method.

Now that you've learned about all the hardest aspects of the Russian alphabet and how pronunciation changes, it's time to start training.

In the 26 training exercises that follow, you will learn how to change your vowels according to stress placement. This is really the most important thing about speaking Russian properly.

The Quick Reference Guide is in the first pronunciation article.

For more in-depth coverage of all the rules, please download my book "Glossika Guide to Russian Pronunciation and Grammar" for free, or get a copy on Google Play books.

Lesson 1: stressed and unstressed а, о, е

Note: the unstressed /ɐ/ is pronounced approximately as the {a} in "about" whereas /ə/ is pronounced like the {o} in "conceive". The /ɐ/ may give you difficulty to hit it straight on especially since Russian native speakers may not be able to isolate it deliberately. You can hear the same sound in stressed position in other languages: the 'a' in Brazilian Portuguese "canto" (but it's nasal), and the 'er' in German "oder". Cantonese is described as having this vowel, as in "人", however this Cantonese vowel is a bit off and sounds different than the Portuguese/German/Russian examples above.

Developers beware: Russian {а, о, е} have different codepoints from English {a, o, e}. You can't search Russian texts with English letters or codepoints. But major search engines have gotten very smart and nowadays on Google you can actually type out whole English phrases with your Russian keyboard on and it will know what you want, and vice versa!

ктоktowho
ма́маmaməmom
тома́тtɐmattomato
поpoalmost
па́паpapədad
пока́pɐkameanwhile
пото́мpɐtomafterward
пото́пpɐtopflood
кета́kʲɪtaSiberian salmon
те́маtʲemətheme
паке́тpɐkʲetpacket
опе́каɐpʲekəguardianship
апте́каɐptʲekədrugstore
Lesson 2: в as voiced [v] and unvoiced [f]

In every lesson that follows, letters will be introduced in voiced and unvoied pairs. Unvoicing happens at the end of words. If you didn't already know that [v] and [f] were a pair, or that [d] and [t] were a pair (and all the others), it's easy to figure out because your tongue and mouth position are exactly the same. The only difference is that you make voicing sound from your throat for [v] and you don't for [f]. Also notice how the English word "of" is actually pronounced with a [v] sound or how the plural of "knife" is "knives". See! This is a phenomenon of the mouth and doesn't belong to any particular language. It applies to languages all around the world and it's a really cool thing to know.

вотvothere
ва́таvatəcotton wool
автома́тəftɐmatautomatic machine
отве́тɐtvʲetanswer
окно́ɐknowindow
конта́ктkɐntaktcontact
океа́нɐkʲɪanocean
не́ктоnʲektəsomebody
моме́нтmɐmʲentmoment
темнота́tʲɪmnatadarkness
вонvonthere
мото́рmɐtormotor
пора́pɐratime; pore
мо́реmorʲɪsea
прое́ктprɐʲektproject
а́вторaftərauthor
во́ротvorətcollar
това́рtɐvarcommodity
впрокfprokfor future use
пра́воpravəright
рома́нrɐmannovel
но́мерnomʲɪrsize, room
во́ронvorənraven
ве́рноvʲernəprobably
Lesson 3: л

Note: {л} is just like in English: always light at the beginning of a syllable [l] and always dark at the end of a syllable [ƚ] as in English 'all' and Russian толпа́ вол and волна́. Russian can turn a dark {л} at the end of a syllable into a light {л} by adding the soft sign, which also makes it palatal.

ма́лоmaləfew
о́колоokələabout
толпа́tɐlpacrowd
попа́лоpɐpalərandom
ле́тоlʲetəsummer
те́лоtʲeləbody
омле́тɐmlʲetomelette
по́леpolʲɪfield
волvolox
вле́воvlʲevəto the left
коле́ноkɐlʲenəknee
волна́vɐlnawave
Lesson 4: д as voiced [d] and unvoiced [t]
еда́ʲɪdafood
дека́даdʲɪkadədecade
вода́vɐdawater
во́дкаvotkəvodka
по́водpovətoccasion
на́доnadənecessary
кома́ндаkɐmandəteam
дека́нdʲɪkandean
дра́маdramədrama
до́кторdoktərdoctor
пара́дpɐratparade
пода́рокpɐdarəkgift
предме́тprʲɪdmʲetobject, item
пра́вдаpravdətruth
де́ревоdʲerʲɪvətree
перево́дpʲɪrʲɪvottranslation
наро́дnɐrotnation
ло́дкаlotkəboat
де́лоdʲeləbusiness
отде́лɐtdʲeldepartment
до́лларdollərdollar
Lesson 5: с

There is no voicing pair for {с}, which makes it quite different from English, because English often pronounces {s} like [z], as in "as" and "has" and "was", etc. The same thing happens in French, Italian, Portuguese, and German. But not Spanish! And in this regard, Russian acts more like Spanish!

оса́ɐsawasp
ме́стоmʲestəplace
песо́кpʲɪsoksand
восто́кvɐstokeast
Москва́mɐskvaMoscow
соста́вsɐstafcomposition
всеfsʲeeverybody
сове́тsɐvʲetadvice
вме́стеvmʲestʲɪtogether
ана́насɐnanəspineapple
стена́stʲɪnawall
осно́ваɐsnovəbasis
секре́тsʲɪkrʲetsecret
се́страsʲestrəsister
о́стровostrəfisland
вопро́сvɐprosquestion
се́верsʲevʲɪrnorth
сторона́stərɐnaside
тра́нспортtranspərttransport
стекло́stʲɪkloglass
во́лосvoləshair
сла́ваslavəglory
сло́воslovəword
де́тствоdʲetstvəchildhood
а́дресadrʲɪsaddress
сре́дствоsrʲetstvəmeans
солда́тsɐldatsoldier
вследfslʲetbehind
Lesson 6: х

In Russian alphabet articles 1 and 2, we introduced this letter in Roman form as {kh} and also compared it with English {ch} as in "character". Since we're using more IPA in this article, we're going to use the IPA letter [x] which also happens to look exactly like the Russian {х}! But developers beware, different codepoints!

ва́хтаvaxtəkeep watch
ве́хаvʲexəlandmark
хара́ктерxɐraktʲɪrcharacter
наве́рхnɐvʲerxupwards
дохо́дdɐxotincome
отхо́дɐtxotdeparture
подхо́дpɐdxotapproach
прохо́дprɐxotpassage
хо́лодxolətcold
схе́маsxʲeməscheme
са́харsaxərsugar
восхо́дvɐsxotascent
Lesson 7: у as stressed [u] and unstressed [ʊ]
пау́кpɐukspider
нау́каnɐukəscience
рука́rʊkaarm
уро́кʊroklesson
у́троutrəmorning
кула́кkʊlakfist
укло́нʊklonslope
валу́нvɐlunboulder
ду́маduməcouncil
куда́kʊdawhere to
докуме́нтdəkʊmʲentdocument
уда́рʊdarblow
уро́дʊrotmonster
дура́кdʊrakfool
проду́ктprɐduktproduct
кусо́кkʊsokpiece
до́пускdopʊskaccess
до́ступdostʊpaccess
секу́ндаsʲekundəa second
студе́нтstʊdʲentstudent
у́хоuxəear
ухо́дʊxotleaving
успе́хʊspʲexsuccess
Lesson 8: з as voiced [z] and unvoiced [s]
зака́зzɐkasorder
за́мокzaməkcastle
отка́зɐtkasrefusal
пока́зpɐkasdemonstration
зате́мzɐtʲemthen
зо́наzonаzone
зако́нzɐkonlaw
взаме́нvzɐmʲeninstead of
зара́зzɐrasat once
то́рмозtorməsbrake
затра́таzɐtratəexpense
позо́рpɐzorshame
разме́рrɐzmʲersize
за́втракzaftrəkbreakfast
зо́лотоzolətəgold
во́злеvozlʲɪbeside
зе́ркалоzʲerkələmirrow
зае́здzɐʲestlap
по́ездpoʲɪsttrain
заво́дzɐvotfactory
звезда́zvʲɪzdastar
прое́здprɐʲestpassage
разде́лrɐzdʲeldivision
зано́сzɐnosdrift
расска́зrɐsskasstory
запро́сzɐprosinquiry
во́зрастvozrəstage
слеза́slʲɪzatear
за́пахzapəxsmell
захва́тzɐxvatcapture
захо́дzɐxotapproach
па́узаpaʊzəpause
во́здухvozdʊxair
Lesson 9: м
матема́тикаmətʲɪmatʲɪkəmathematics
поми́моpɐmʲiməbesides
па́никаpanʲɪkəpanic
капита́нkəpʲitancaptain
напи́токnɐpʲitəkdrink
и́менноimʲɪnnəexactly
мне́ниеmnʲenʲɪʲɪopinion
внима́ниеvnʲɪmanʲɪʲɪattention
Аме́рикаɐmʲerʲɪkəAmerica
кварти́раkvɐrtʲirəapartment
про́тивprotʲɪfopposite
карти́наkɐrtʲinəpicture
оли́ваɐlʲivəolive
тле́ниеtlʲenʲɪʲɪdecay
полови́наpəlɐvʲinəhalf
киломе́трkʲɪlɐmʲetrkilometer
материа́лmətʲɪrʲɪalmaterial
коридо́рkərʲɪdorcorridor
приро́даprʲɪrodənature
дире́кторdʲɪrʲektərdirector
пери́одpʲɪrʲiətperiod, age
ро́динаrodʲɪnəhomeland
команди́рkəmɐndʲircommander
систе́маsʲɪstʲeməsystem
мини́стрmʲɪnʲistrminister
интере́сʲɪntʲɪrʲesinterest
пласти́нкаplɐstʲinkədisc
велосипе́дvʲɪləsʲɪpʲetbicycle
Lesson 10: н
мину́таmʲɪnutəminute
литерату́раlʲɪtʲɪrɐturəliterature
иску́сствоʲɪskusstvəart
институ́тʲɪnstʲɪtutinstitute
зна́ниеznanʲɪʲɪknowledge
назва́ниеnɐzvanʲɪʲɪname, title
разви́тиеrɐzvʲitʲɪʲɪdevelopment
зре́ниеzrʲenʲiʲesight, eyesight, vision
ана́лизɐnalʲɪsanalysis
зда́ниеzdanʲɪʲɪbuilding
президе́нтprʲɪzʲɪdʲentpresident
созна́ниеsɐznanʲɪʲɪconsciousness
Lesson 11: г as voiced [g] and unvoiced [k]

Watch out for the one word below where [g] becomes [x]. This is explained here. By the way, the word is "easy".

мно́гоmnogəmuch
програ́ммаprɐgramməprogram
голова́gəlɐvahead
генера́лgʲɪnʲɪralgeneral
пого́даpɐgodəweather
не́гдеnʲegdʲɪnowhere
доро́гаdɐrogəroad
ле́гкоlʲexeasy
недо́лгоnʲɪdolgənot long
восто́ргvɐstorkdelight
услу́гаʊslugəservice
газе́таgɐzʲetənewspaper
разгово́рrəzgɐvora talk
иногда́inɐgdasometimes
господи́нgəspɐdʲingentleman
магази́нməgɐzʲinshop, store
органи́змərgɐnʲizmorganism
Lesson 12: ь
ка́меньkamʲɪnʲstone
па́датьpadətʲto fall
во́семьvosʲɪmʲeight
сте́пеньstʲepʲɪnʲdegree, extent
ско́ростьskorəstʲspeed
секрета́рьsʲekrʲetarʲsecretary
ра́достьradəstʲgladness, joy
культу́раkʊlʲturəculture
здоро́вьеzdɐrovjʲɪhealth
результа́тrʲɪzʊlʲtatresult
роди́тельrɐdʲitʲɪlʲparent
писа́тельpʲɪsatʲelʲwriter
входи́тьfxɐdʲitʲto enter
де́ньгиdʲenʲgʲɪmoney
Lesson 13: й
война́vɐjnawar
майо́рmɐjormajor
евре́йʲɪvrʲejJew
райо́нrɐjonregion
лейтена́нтlʲɪʲtʲɪnantlieutenant
войска́vɐjskaforces
засто́йzɐstojstagnation
музе́йmuzʲejmuseum
войти́vɐjtʲito enter
ино́йɪnojother
дре́внийdrʲevnʲɪjancient
де́йствиеdʲejstvʲɪʲɪaction
геро́йgʲɪrojhero
Lesson 14: ш

On the IPA chart of the vowels the letter [i] is a front vowel (tongue root pushed forward). The retroflex letter {ш} has a retracted tongue root which actually makes it difficult for a front vowel like [i] to follow easily. This is why /i/ and /ɪ/ turn into [ɨ], the retracted version. By the way, [ɨ] is essentially the same as {ы}.

мешо́кmʲɪšoksack
шко́лаškoləschool
пешехо́дpʲɪšɨxotpedestrian
шу́ткаšutkəjoke
петру́шкаpʲɪtruškəparsley
душа́dʊšasoul
де́вушкаdʲevʊškəgirl
маши́наmɐšɨcar
тишина́tʲɪšɨnasilence
шлангšlаnkhose
ло́шадьlošədʲhorse
Lesson 15: ж as voiced [ž] and unvoiced [š]

Same thing happening here with {ж} as with {ш} in the last lesson causing front vowels to become [ɨ]. Also take note that the combination {зж} palatalizes the sequence, hence becoming [źź] as explained in my previous Russian pronunciation article- Native Russian Pronunciation 1: Five Difficulties Explained.

ко́жаkožəskin
ножnošknife
жена́žɨnawife
жа́лоžaləsting
жа́ждаžaždəthirst
оде́ждаɐdʲeždəclothing
паде́жpɐdʲešgrammatical case
наде́ждаnɐdʲeždəhope
пре́ждеprʲeždʲɪformerly
жестžɨstgesture
уже́ʊžʲealready
ну́жноnužnəmust
журна́лžʊrnaljournal
ме́ждуmʲeždʊbetween
у́жасužəsterror
по́зжеpoźźʲɪlater
за́мужzamʊšmarried woman
живо́тžɨvotstomach
жирžɨrgrease
инжене́рɪnžɨnʲerengineer
жела́ниеžɨlanʲɪʲɪwish
движе́ниеdvʲɪženʲɪʲɪmovement
ору́жиеɐružɨʲɪweapon
гара́жgɐrašgarage
жале́тьžɐlʲetʲpity
дождьdoždʲrain
ждатьždаtʲto wait
житьžɨto live
жари́тьžɐrʲitʲto roast
жи́тельžɨtʲɪlʲinhabitant, resident, dweller
жизньžɨznʲlife
Lesson 16: я as stressed [ja] and unstressed [ʲə]

Notice here that when {я} is surrounded by two palatal consonants, they push the vowel forward to [æ] as in the word for 'five': пять. This has less to do with Russian and more to do with the physics of the tongue vs time/speed: since [ʲ] is a high-front glide, the word in question wants the tongue to reverse direction all the way to a low-back [a] and then reverse direction yet again all the way back to a high-front [ʲ]. Because of the speed at which people speak, they don't go all the way back, instead it's a fluid motion from high > low > high, all maintained with a forward tongue root, which means the [a] now sounds like [æ].

Reflexive Verbs ending in {-ться} are pronounced [tsə].

вре́мяvrʲemʲətime
во́времяvovrʲɪmʲəon time
во́ляvolʲəwill
дя́дяdʲadʲəuncle
поря́докpɐrʲadəkorder
дере́вняdʲɪrʲevnʲəvillage
неде́ляnʲɪdʲelʲəweek
ку́хняkuxnʲəkitchen
возня́vɐznʲafuss
заря́zɐrʲadawn
земля́zʲɪmlʲaearth
и́мяimʲəname
компа́нияkɐmpanʲɪʲəcompany
а́рмияarmʲɪʲəarmy
па́ртияpartʲɪʲəparty
ли́нияlʲinʲɪʲəline
иде́яɪdʲeʲəidea
Росси́яrɐssʲiʲəRussia
исто́рияɪstorʲɪʲəhistory
хозя́инxɐzʲaʲɪnmaster, boss, host
тя́гаtʲagədraft
я́годаjagədəberry
взглядvzglʲatglance
Герма́нияgʲermanʲɪʲəGermany
опя́тьɐpʲætʲagain
па́мятьpamʲətʲmemory
де́вятьdʲevʲətʲnine
статья́stɐtʲjaarticle
семья́sʲɪmʲjafamily
нельзя́nʲɪlʲzʲamust not
связьsvʲæsʲconnection
ше́яšeʲəneck
гуля́шgʊlʲašgoulash
Lesson 17: б as voiced [b] and unvoiced [p]
бето́нbʲɪtonconcrete
а́рабarəparab
оборо́тəbɐrotrotation, turn
рабо́таrɐbotəwork
о́блакоobləkəcloud
блокно́тblɐknotnotebook
пробле́маprɐblʲeməproblem
обе́дɐbʲetlunch
побе́даpɐbʲedəvictory
соба́каsɐbakədog
спо́собsposəpmethod, way, mode
свобо́даsvɐbodəfreedom
обхо́дɐbxotround, tour
буке́тbʊkʲetbouquet
бу́кваbukvəalphabet letter
труба́trʊbapipe
бру́ттоbruttəgross weight
буру́нbʊrunsurf
бура́нbʊransnowstorm
бу́дкаbutkəbooth
бу́детbudʲɪtwill
бу́хтаbuxtəbay
забо́таzɐbotəcare
о́бразobrəsmanner, shape
арбу́зɐrbuswatermelon
кабине́тkəbʲɪnʲetstudy, office
тре́бованиеtrʲebəvənʲɪʲɪdemand
биле́тbʲɪlʲetticket
оби́даɐbʲidəinsult
спаси́боspɐsʲibəgratitude, thanks
бе́регbʲerʲɪkshore
бума́гаbʊmagəpaper
белу́гаbʲɪlugəbeluga
изги́бɪzgʲipbend
борьба́bɐrʲbafight, struggle
боле́тьbɐlʲetʲbe sick
кора́бльkɐrablʲship
о́бластьobləstʲprovince
бульва́рbʊlʲvarboulevard
судьба́sʊdʲbafate
боле́зньbɐlʲeznʲillness, sickness, disease
убира́тьʊbʲɪratʲto clear away
а́йсбергajsbʲɪrkiceberg
ба́бушкаbabʊškəgrandmother
оши́бкаɐšɨbkəmistake, error
слу́жбаslužbəservice
ба́гажbagəšbaggage
ребя́таrʲebjatəchildren
Lesson 18: ч

This letter is palatal {ć}. It is not equivalent to English {ch} which is what most beginners of Russian equate it to. It is much closer to the {tu} sound in "future" unless you pronounce that with a full {ch}. Try keeping the tip of the tongue down with the bottom teeth when saying this letter.

вчера́fćʲɪrayesterday
плечо́plʲɪćoshoulder
челове́кćʲɪlɐvʲekperson
нача́лоnɐćaləbeginning
де́вочкаdʲevəćkəlittle girl
каче́ствоkɐćʲestvəquality
встре́чаfstrʲećəmeeting
заче́мzɐćʲemreason why
че́резćʲerʲɪsthrough
зада́чаzɐdaćəproblem, task
причи́наprʲɪćʲinəcause
лече́ниеlʲɪćʲenʲɪʲɪtreatment, cure
значе́ниеznɐćʲenʲɪʲemeaning
помо́чьpɐmoćʲto help
конча́тьkɐnćatʲto finish
о́ченьoćʲɪnʲvery
о́чередьoćʲɪrʲɪdʲqueue
ма́льчикmalʲćʲɪkboy
чита́тельćʲɪtatʲɪlʲreader
ли́чностьlʲićnəstʲpersonality
слу́чайslućəjcase
му́жчинаmuśʲɪnəman
Lesson 19: щ

I'm going to repeat what I posted in the alphabet article about this letter in case you didn't see it.

A lot of old textbooks teach this letter transcribed as the compound "shch", but I'm afraid that this is misleading because the Russian language is in a state of flux. Research was done as far back as the 1960s and found only about 20% of the population still had such a hypercorrect pronunciation and only among the elderly at that. Today it has all but vanished. Today the letter sounds just like the Croatian or Polish ś.

щека́śʲɪkacheek
суще́ствоsʊśʲestvəcreature
о́вощиovəśʲɪvegetables
ощуще́ниеaśʊśʲenʲɪʲɪsensation, feeling
по́мощьpoməśʲhelp
треща́тьtrʲɪśatʲto crackle
пло́щадьplośədʲsquare, area
же́нщинаženśʲɪnəwoman
я́щикjaśʲɪkbox
сообща́sɐɐpśajointly
о́бществоopśʲɪstvəsociety
о́бщийopśʲɪjgeneral
Lesson 20: ё
ёлкаjolkəfir
полётpɐlʲotflight
пелёнкаpʲelʲonkədiaper
орёлɐrʲoleagle
перёдpʲɪrʲotfront
самолётsəmɐlʲotairplane
делёжdʲɪlʲošdistribution
тётяtʲotʲəaunt
ребёнокrʲɪbʲonəkchild
бельёbʲɪlʲjolinen
счётśʲotthe bill
ещё неʲɪśʲo nʲɪnot yet
Lesson 21: ы
опы́тɐpɨtexperience
попы́ткаpɐpɨtkəattempt
на́выкnavɨkskill
ры́нокrɨnəkmarket
вы́летvɨlʲɪttaking off
вы́водvɨvətwithdrawal
вы́падvɨpətthrust
дыра́dɨrahole
высота́vɨsɐtaheight
вы́хлопvɨxləpexhaust
о́тдыхotdɨxrelaxation
вы́ходvɨxətexit
вы́купvɨkʊpredemption
вы́пускvɨpʊskoutput
вы́ступvɨstʊpprojection
вы́возvɨvəsexport
вы́зовvɨzəfsummons
вы́резvɨrʲɪsa notch
вы́ездvɨʲɪstdeparture
му́зыкаmuzɨkəmusic
вы́годаvɨgədəadvantage
взыва́тьvzɨvatjto appeal
пе́рвыйpʲervɨjfirst
у́мныйumnɨjclever
кры́шаkrɨšəroof
вышина́vɨšɨnaheight
лы́жаlɨžəski
вы́жатьvɨžətjsurvive
ка́ждыйkaždɨjevery
язы́кjɐzɨklanguage
ры́баrɨbəfish
вы́борvɨbərchoice
бы́лоbɨləalready
улы́бкаʊlɨbkəsmile
буты́лкаbʊtɨlkəbottle
удо́бныйʊdobnɨjconvenient
ты́сячаtɨsjəćəthousand
тёмныйtjomnɨjshady
чёрныйćjornɨjblack
Lesson 22: ц
оте́цɐtʲecfather
цве́токcvʲetəkflower
цена́cʲɪnaprice
коне́цkɐnʲecend
не́мецnʲemʲɪca German
акце́нтɐkcʲentaccent
вене́цvʲɪnʲeccrown
вконе́цfkɐnʲeccompletely
па́лецpalʲɪcfinger
молоде́цməlɐdʲecwell done
сце́наscʲenəscene
проце́ссprɐcʲessprocess
со́лнцеsolncʲɪsun
се́рдцеsʲertcʲɪheart
пти́цаptʲicəbird
при́нципprʲincʲɪpprinciple
лицо́lʲɪcoface
страни́цаstrɐnʲicəpage
столи́цаstɐlʲicəcapital
у́лицаulʲɪcəstreet
грани́цаgrɐnʲicаborder
организа́цияərgənʲɪzacʲɪjəorganization
ме́сяцmʲesʲəcmonth
интона́цияɪntɐnacʲɪjəintonation
опера́цияəpʲɪracʲɪjəoperation
мили́цияmʲɪlʲicʲɪjəmilitia
ста́нцияstancʲɪjəstation
ситуа́цияsʲɪtʊacʲɪjəsituation
бое́цbɐʲecfighter
мы́шцаmɨšcəmuscle
Lesson 23: ю as stressed [ʲu] and unstressed [ʲʊ̈]
меню́mʲɪnʲumenu
валю́таvɐlʲutəcurrency
костю́мkɐstʲumcostume, suit
всю́дуfsʲudʊeverywhere
сою́зsɐjusunion
парашю́тpərɐšʲutparachute
бюро́bʲʊ̈rooffice
дебю́тdʲɪbʲutdebut
любо́вьlʲʊ̈bofʲlove
револю́цияrʲɪvɐlʲucʲɪjərevolution
Lesson 24: э
поэ́тpɐɛtpoet
эта́пɪtapstage
экза́менɪɡzamʲɪnexamination
силуэ́тsʲɪlʊɛtsilhouette
эта́жɪtašstorey
Lesson 25: ф
ко́феkofʲɪcoffee
телефо́нtʲɪlʲɪfontelephone
профе́ссорprɐfʲessərprofessor
фра́заfrazəphrase
фи́рмаfʲirməfirm
графи́тgrɐfʲitgraphite
фигу́раfʲɪgurəfigure
фами́лияfɐmilʲɪjəsurname
фотогра́фияfətɐgrafʲɪjəphotography
буфе́тbʊfʲetbuffet
бу́ферbufʲerbuffer
офице́рəfʲɪcʲerofficer
информа́цияʲɪnfɐrmacʲɪjəinformation
Lesson 26: г as voiced /v/
сего́sʲɪvooneself
сего́дняsʲɪvodnʲətoday
кра́сногоkrasnəvəof a red
хоро́шегоxɐrošɨvəof a good
него́nʲɪvoof his
моего́məʲɪvoof mine
но́вогоnovəvəof a new
си́негоsʲinʲɪvəof a blue
того́tɐvoof that
э́тогоɛtəvəof this
одного́ədnɐvoof one
ва́шегоvašɨvəof Yours
на́шегоnašɨvəof ours
твоего́tvəʲɪvoof yours
кого́kɐvoof whose
чёрногоćʲornəvəof a black
молодо́гоməlɐdovəof a young
бо́льшегоbolʲšɨvəof a large
не́чегоnʲećʲɪvənothing
ничего́nʲićʲɪvonothing

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