/ Russian Language

Hack Slavic Vocabulary

For speakers of Western European languages, learning a Slavic language can be a daunting task. Not only is the grammar full of declensions, but the vocabulary presents us with long words that are full of diacritics.

A large number of roots present in the Slavic languages descend from common Indo-European roots that we're already familiar with in English. We're lucky as English speakers since we usually have common vocabulary sitting side by side from different branches of Indo-European, for example "foot" from our Germanic past and the "ped" of "pedestrian" from our Latin past. And in the sciences we are required to learn many of the Greek roots that enrich the English language.

Since we are familiar with at least three similar branches that make up our modern vocabulary, it is not too much of a stretch to acquire a fourth group of roots, from which you will have access to understanding another dozen languages of East Europe. Out of 200 roots, at least half of these have cognates in English and other European languages. And almost all of the vocabulary constructed from these roots have parallel structures in other languages.

An example of a cognate structure would be Russian председатель, Czech předseda, Croatian predsjednik or predsjedatelj. Since pred- is cognate with English pre- and -sed- is cognate with English -sid/sit/sed-, it is possible to guess this word means something like pre-side. In fact, in all three languages, it refers to "president" or "chairman". In German, the same parallel structure exists in the word Vorsitzender (vor+sitz). Since the English comes from a Latin root, the same word descends into Italian, French, Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese and more dialects.

An example of a parallel structure that is not cognate with other languages can be seen in roots such as рук: подручный (assistant, lit: under-hand), Polish podręcze (arm of a chair, lit: under-hand), Czech područí (dependence or subordination, lit: under-hand), Croatian područje (region, jurisdiction, lit: under-hand). No matter which language you're learning, you can learn to apply the roots to acquire new vocabulary extremely quickly.

The list below is a rough guide to the most common Slavic roots and how they manifest in Russian, Polish, Czech, and Croatian. The Slovak forms can be deduced from the Czech, and both the Serbian and Slovene forms from the Croatian, but we will continue to update this page with specific data.

Abbreviations: EN=English, FR=French, DE=German, LAT=Latin, EL=Greek, HU=Hungarian

Slavic RootRussianPolishCzechCroatianCognates and Parallel Formations
BUD: to be awakeБД, БОД, БУД,
БУЖД, БЛЮД
BUD, BUDZBD, BED, BOD,
BUD, BUY, BOUZ
BD, BOD, BUD, BUĐ
BEK>BEŽ: to runБЕГ, БЕЖBIEG, BIEŻBĚH, BÍH, BĚŽBIJEG, BJEG,
BJEŽ
BJ: to beatБИ, БОЙ, БОИBI, BÓJ, BOIBI, BÍ, BOJBI, BOJCompare EN pulse < pellere, battle
BLAG: good,
blissful, gentle
БЛАГ, БЛАЖBŁOG, BŁAG, BŁAŻBLAH, BLAŽBLAG, BLAŽCompare EN bene-
BOG: God, richБОГ, БОЖBÓG, BOG, BÓŻ, BOŻ, BOSZBŮH, BOH, BŮŽ, BOŽBOG, BOŽ, BOŠCompare Sanskrit
bhágas
BOK: sideБОК, БОЧBOK, BOCZ, BACZBOK, BOČBOK, BOČ
BOR: fightБОР, БР, БОРОН,
БРАН
BOR, BRON,
BROŃ, BRAN, BRAM
BR, BOR, BRAN, BRÁN, BRAŇBOR, BRAN
BR: to take, gather, collect chooseБР, БИР, БОР, БЕРBR, BIER, BIÓR, BIOR, BÓR, BOR, BRZBR, BÍR, BER,
BĚR, BĚŘ, BOR,
BĚŘBR, BIR,
BOR
Compare bear,
offer, suffer,
transfer,
metaphor,
periphery
BY: to beБЫ, БУД, БАВBY, BĄDŹ, BUD, BAWBY, BÝ, BUD, BUĎ, BAVBI, BUD, BAVCompare be, future, physics
HOD>ŠED:
to go, walk
ХОД, ХОЖ, ХАЖ,
ХОЖД, ШЕД
CHODZ, CHÓD, CHODŹ,
CHADZ, SZ
CHOD, CHŮD, CHOZ,
CHŮZ, CHÁZ, Š
HOD, ŠACompare episode, exodus, method, period
HT: to want, wishХОТCHC, CHOT/C/Ć,
CHĘT/C/Ć, CHUĆ
CHT, CHOT, CHUT, CHOUT, CHUŤ, CHUCHT, HOT
HRAN: to keep,
preserve
ХОРОН, ХРАНCHRON, CHRANCHRÁN, CHRAŇHRAN, HRAM
HIT: to grasp,
seize, hurry
ХИТ, ХИЩ, ХВАТCHWYT/C, CHYTCHYT, CHVAT/C, CHVÁTHIT, HIĆ, HVAT/Ć
KON>ČIN: beginning,
end, finish,
complete, perform,
accomplish, carry out,
perfection,
excellence
ЧА, ЧИН, КОН, КАНCZA, CZYN, KON/ŃČÍ, ČÁ, ČIN, ČÍN, KONČE, ČIN, KON
ČAS: timeЧАСCZAS, CZESČASČAS
ČAST: part, share,
destiny, luck,
fortune
ЧАСТCZĘŚĆ/C, CZESTČÁST, ČAST, ČESTČEST, ČEŠĆ
KOJ>ČI: to rest, quiet, resting roomЧИ, КОЙ, КОИ, КАИCZA, CZY, KÓJ, KOI, KAJČI, ČÍ, KOJ, KÁJČI, KOJCompare EN quiet, while, NO hvile (also PL chwile)
ČIN: order, arrangement,
mode, manner,
utensil, implement
ЧИНCZYN/Ń, ČIN/ŇČIN/MCompare EN poem < ποιέω < ποιϝέω ‎< *kʷey-, Sanskrit: चिनोति ‎(cinoti)
ČT: to read, count,
honor, notice
ЧТ, ЧИТ, ЧЕТCZT, CZC, CZYT, CZET, CZĘ, CČT, ČIT, ČÍT, ČET, ČA, CČT, ŠT, ČIT, ČATCompare Sanskrit चेतति ‎(cétati)
ČU: to feel,
smell, hear
ЧУCZUČI, ČÍČUCompare EN caution < cavere, caveat
DA: to give, yield, putDADA, DÁDACompare EN dose < διδόναι, donation < donum, dowry, endow
DE: to do, make,
put, happen,
put away, disappear,
put on (don)
ДЕ, ДЕЛDZIE, DZIA, DZIAŁ, DZIEŁ/LDÍ, DI, DĚ, DÁ, DÍL, DĚLDJE, DIJE, DE, D, Đ, DJEL, DJEOCompare EN theme < τιθέναι, thesis, synthesis
DEL: part, divide,
atom (indivisible part), share
ДЕЛDZIAŁ, DZIELDÍL, DĚLDIJEL, DJEL, DIOCompare EN deal < Teil/teilen, dole, atom < άτομος < ά+τέμνειν
DEN: day, today,
dawn, diary/journal
ДЕН, ДНDZIEŃ/N, DNDEN, DNDAN, DNCompare EN day < dies, dawn
DLG>DLŽ: long, along, lingerДЛ, ДОЛ, ДОЛГ, ДОЛЖDL, DŁUG, DŁUŻDL, DÉL, DLOUH, DLOUŽ, DLUŽDUL, DUG, DUŽCompare EN along, linger, long
DOB: good, suitableДОБDOBDOBDOB, DAB
DOBR: good, wellДОБР, ДАБРDOBRDOBR, DOBŘDOBAR, DOBR
DR: to tearДР, ДИР, ДОРDRZ, DZIERZ, DARDR, DŘ, DĚR, DORDR, DER, DIR, DORCompare EN tear < Zorn/zerren / Trotz, dermatology, epidermis < δέρμα < δέρειν
DRUG: other, second, friend,
comrade, kind, sort
ДРУГ, ДРУЖDRUG, DRUH, DRUŻDRUH, DRUŽDRUG, DRUK, DRUŽ, DRUŠ
DRŽ: to hold, enDURe,
-tain, -ten
ДЕРЖDZIERŻDRŽDRŽ
DVA: two, duo,
dual, twin,
despair, doubt
ДВА, ДВУ, ДВОЙ,
ДВО-
DWA, DWU, DWÓJ,
DWOJ, DWOI, DWAJ
DVA, DVOJDVA, DVO, DVOJ, DVAJCompare EN two < zwei, dual < duo, twin < Zwilling
DVIG: to move, raise, liftДВИГ, ДВИЖ, ДВИЗDŹWIGDVIH, DVÍH, DVIŽDIG, DVIG, DIZ
DUH: to breatheДЫХ, ДЫШ, ДОХ,
ДУХ, ДУШ
DYCH, DYSZ, DECH,
TCH, DUCH, DUSZ, DUS
DYCH, DÝCH, DYŠ,
DECH, DŠ, DUCH,
DUŠ, DUS
DIH, DIS, DAH, DUH, DUŠCompare EN deer < Tier (animal ~ anima (atmen=breathe) ~ spirare > aspire/spirit)
GIB: to bend/fold,
perish, destroy
ГИБ, ГУБGIB, GUBHB, HYB, HÝB,
HEB, HUB, HOUB
GIB, GA, GUB
GLAND: to look, glance,
regard, respect
ГЛЯДGLĄD, GLĘDZHLED, HLÍDGLEDCompare EN glance (coincidence)
GLOS: voice, vote,
vowel
ГОЛОС, ГЛАС, ГЛАШGŁOS/Ś, GŁASZHLAS, HLÁS, HLAŠ,
HLÁŠ
GLAS, GLAZ, GLAŠCompare EN vowel < vocalis < vox
GLAV: headГОЛОВ, ГЛАВGŁOW, GŁÓWHLAVGLAVCompare EN chief/chapter < kaput
GN: to chase, drive,
impulse, instinct,
exaggeration
ГН, ГОНGN, GON/Ń, GANHN, HONGON
GOD: good, suitable,
happen, event,
chance, accident
ГОД, ГОЖДGODZ, GÓD, HOD,
GADZ
HOD, HŮZ, HAZ, HÁZGOD, GOĐ, GAĐCompare EN good, gather, get
GAR: hotГОР, ГАР, ГР, ЖАРGORZ, GÓR, GAR,
GRZ, ŻARZ
HOR, HOŘ, KOŘ,
HÁR, HŘ, HR, ŽÁR
GOR, GAR, GR,
ŽAR, ŽER
Compare EN warm/thermal < θερμός < *gʷʰer- > Latin formus > furnace, > Sanskrit घर्म ‎(gharma), also ardent
GOVOR: to speakГОВОР, ГОВАРGAWORZ, GWARZHOVOR, HOVOŘGOVOR, GOVAR
GRD: enclosure, garden,
town
ГОРОД, ГОРОЖ, ГОРАЖ,
ГРАД, ГРАЖД
GRÓD, GRODZ, GRADZHRAD, HRÁD, HRAZ, HRÁZGRAD, GRAĐCompare EN town ~ NL tuin (garden) ~ DE Zaun (fence)
ID: to go, walkИД, ЫД, ЙДI, JDIDCompare EN exit, initial, transit < LAT ire < EL ιέναι
IMEN: nameИМЯ, ИМЕНIMIĘ, IMIENJMEN, JMÉNIMENCompare EN name < LAT nomen > nominal ~ noun < ὄνομα
IN: one, some, otherИНINJININCompare EN one < unus
ISK: to seekИСК, ИСК, ИЩ, ЫЩISK, YSKISK, ÍSK, IŠTISKCompare EN ask
IST: real, true, certainИСТIST, IŚC, ISZCZJIST, JIŠŤIST
IM: to take, have,
property, wealth,
owner
ИМ, ЫМ, ЙМ, ЕМ,
Я, М
JĄ/Ę, IĄ/Ę, JEN,
IM, JM, JEM, M
Í, JA, A, Á, JE,
Ě, E, JIM, JÍM, ÍM,
JM, JEM, ĚM, M
E, JA, A, IM,
JM, JAM, JEM, M
Compare EN exempt, preempt, redeem < LAT emere; assume, consume, presume, resume < LAT sumere
JAV: wakefulnessЯВJAWJEVJAVCompare EL φαίνειν (show, appear) > phenomenon
ID>JEH>JEZD: to go, rideЕХ, ЕЗДJECH, JAZD, JEŹDZ, JEŻDŻJEZD, JÍZDJAH, JEZD
JED: to eatЕД, ЯДJAD, IAD, JEJÍD, ÍD, JED, ĚDJED, JACompare EN eat, edible < LAT edere
JEDN: one, union, unique,
unit, unite, unity, singular
ОДИН, ОДН, ЕДИНJEDEN, JEDYN, JEDN,
JEN, ODYN
JEDEN, JEDIN, JEDN,
JEN
JEDAN, JEDIN, JEDNCompare EN one < unus > unique, unit, unite
JES: to beЕС, С, СУТ, СУЩJES, SJES, JS, JSOUCJES, S, SUT, SUŠTCompare EN is < ist ~ est ~ ἐστί
KAZ: to show, sayКАЗKAZ, KAŹKAZ, KÁZKAZ, KASCompare EN dictate < dicere ~ δεικνύναι
KID: to throwКИДKYDKIDdialectal
KLAD: to lay, putКЛАДKŁADKLAD, KLÁDKLADCompare EN lade, load < DE laden
KLON: to bend, inCLINe, leanКЛОН, КЛАНKŁON, KŁANKLON, KLOŇ, KLAN, KLÁNKLON, KLANCompare EN lean, incline < LAT clinare ~ κλίνειν
KLUK: hook, key, close, connectКЛЮК, КЛЮЧKLUK, KLUCZKLIK, KLIČ, KLÍČKLJUK, KLJUČCompare EN close, exclude < LAT claudere / clavis
KOL: wheel, circleКОЛKOŁ/L, KÓŁ/L, KALKOLKOLCompare EN wheel < κύκλος
KOR: to scold, punishКОР, КАРKORZ, KÓR, KARKOR/Ř, KÁRKOR, KAR
KREP: strongКРЕПKRZEPKŘEPKREP, KRIJEP
KRIV: crooked, twistedКРИВKRZYWKŘIVKRIVCompare EN curve < LAT curvus
KROJ: to cutКРОИ, КРАЙ, КРАИKROI, KRÓJ, KRAJKROJ, KRAJ, KRÁJ, KREJKROJ, KRAJ
KRT: shortКОРОТ, КРАТ, КРАЩKROT, KRÓT, KRÓCKRAT, KRÁT/CKRAT, KRAĆCompare EN short / curt < LAT curtus
KRK>KRG: circleКРУГ, КРУЖKRĄG, KRĘG, KRĄŻKRUH, KRUŽKRUG, KRUŽCompare EN ring < hring < *krengʰ
KRUT: to twistКРУТKRĘT/C, KRUT, KRZĄT, KRZĘTKROUT, KRUTKRUT, KRET
KRY: to coverКРЫ, КРОВKRYKRÝ, KROVKRI, KROVCompare EN crypt < κρύπτειν (hide)
KUS: to tasteКУС, КУШKUS, KUSZKUS, KUŠ, KOUŠKUS, KUŠCompare EN choose ~ Gothic kausjan, EN disgust < LAT gustare
LEG: to lie, reclineЛЕГ, ЛЯГ, ЛЕЖ,
ЛОГ, ЛОЖ, ЛАГ
LEG, LEŻ, ŁÓG,
ŁOG, ŁOŻ, ŁÓŻ,
LĄG, LĘG
LEH, LÉH, LEŽ,
LOH, LOŽ, LŮŽ,
LÍH
LEG, LIJEG, LEŽ,
LOG, LOŽ, LOZ,
LAG
Compare EN lie/lay < DE liegen/legen, lair < Lager
LEG: lightweightЛЕГ, ЛЬГ, ЛЬЗLEK, LG, LŻLEH, LH, LZLAG, LAKCompare EN light < LAT levis
LET: to flyЛЕТLAT, LOT, LECLET, LÉTLET
LEZ: to climbЛЕЗ, ЛЕС, ЛАЗLEŹ, ŁAZLEZ, LÉZLJES, LAZ, LAŽ
LI: to pourЛИ, ЛЕ, ЛОЙLA, LI, LE, ŁÓJLI, LÍ, LE, LÉ, LŮJLI, LJE, LIJE, LOJ
LIH: left over, superfluous, badЛИХ, ЛИШLICHLICH, LIŠLIH, LIŠCompare EN lend/loan < LAT linquere > relic/relinquish
LIK: shape, form, faceЛИК, ЛИЦ, ЛИЧLIC, LICZLIC, LÍC/Č, LIČ, LIŠLIK, LIC/Č
LOM: to breakЛОМŁOM, ŁAMLOM, LAM, LÁMLOM, LAMCompare EN lame
LUV: to love, likeЛЮБLUBLIB, LÍBLJUBCompare EN love, libido
LUK: to separate, join, uniteЛУЧŁĄCZLUK, LUČ, LOUČLUK, LUČ, LUDŽ
LUČ: to receive what is allotted by fateЛУЧLUČ
LID: peopleЛЮДLUDZLID, LÍDLJUDCompare EN lēod < DE Leute
MAH: to waveМАХMACH, MASZMACH, MÁCHMAH, MAŠ
MAL: small, littleМАЛMAŁ, MALMAL, MÁLMAO, MALCompare EN small < LAT malus
MAT: to make turbid,
to confuse, disturb
МЯТ, МУТ, МУЩMĘT, MĄC, MUTMAT, MÁ, MĚŤ, MUT, MOUTMET, MUT, MUĆ
MID: boundaryМЕЖ, МЕЖДMIEDZ, MIĘDZMEZMEĐCompare EN middle/mid, medium < LAT medius, meso- < EL μέσος
MIEN: to exchangeМЕНMIAN, MIENMĚN/ŇMIJEN, MJENCompare EN mean < DE gemein (common), common/munus < LAT communis
MER: measureМЕР, МИРMIAR, MIERZMÍR/Ř, MĚR/ŘMJERCompare EN mete < DE messen, meter < μέτρον
MIS: to mixМЕС, МЕШ, МЕХMIES, MIESZMÍS, MĚS/Š, MÍŠ, MÍCHMIJES/Š, MJEŠCompare EN mix < DE mischen ~ LAT miscere > -miscuous
MIST: placeМЕСТ, МЕЩMIAST, MIEST, MIEŚC, MIESZCZ, MIEJSMÍST/Ť, MĚST, MÍSŤ, MĚŠŤMJEST, MJEŠT
MIT: to sweep, throwМЕТMIOT, MIEC/ĆMET, MÉ, MĚT, MIT, MÍTMET, MEĆCompare LAT meare > EN permeate
MI: to pass byМИMIMI, MÍ, MEMI
MIL: dear, belovedМИЛMIŁ, MILMILMIO, MIL
MIR: peaceМИРMIR, MIERZMÍR/Ř, MIŘ, MĚŘMIR
MYK: to make a sudden movementМК, МЧ, МЫК, МОКMK, MYK, MEKMK, MYK, MEKMAK, MK, MIC
MNE: to thinkМН, МИН, МЯMN, MIN, MIĘMN, MÍN, ME/Ě, MA/ÁMN, MAN, MIN, MECompare EN mind, reminisce, remind, admonish, monument, mnemonic
MOG: to be ableМОГ, МОЖ, МОЧ, МОЩMÓ, MOG/C, MAG/C, MOŻMOH, MAH, MÁH, MOŽ/CMOG, MAG, MOŽ/Ć, MOŠTCompare EN may/might < DE mögen / Macht
MLV: to speak(МОЛВ)MÓW, MOW, MAWMLUV, MLOUV
MOTR: to lookМОТР, МАТРMOTR, MATR
MOR: to dieМЕР, МИР, МОРMRZ, MIER, MAR, MÓR, MORZ, MARZMR/Ř, MÍR, MOR/ŘMR, MIR, MOR, MARCompare EN mortal, moribund, murder < mors / mori
MYSL: to thinkМЫСЛ, МЫСЕЛ, МЫШЛMYSŁ, MYŚLMYSL, MYŠL, MÝŠLMISAO, MISL, MIŠLCompare EN myth > μῦθος
NOS: to carry on footНЕС, НОС, НОШNIOS, NIES, NIEŚ, NOS/Ś/SZNES/Š, NÉS, NOS/Š, NŮŠ, NAŠ, NÁŠNES, NIJE, NOS/Š, NAŠ
NIK: to thrust forthНИКNIKNIKNIK/C
OPST: general, commonОБЩOBEC, OBC, OBCZOBEC, OBC/ČOPĆ, OPŠTRelated to "o" (around) spreading to abstract concepts "general, common"
OK: eyeОК, ОЧOK, OCZOK/Č, ŮČOK/Č, ODŽCompare EN eye < DE Auge ~ LAT oculus
PIN: to stretch, pull tightПЯ, ПН, ПИН, ПОНPIĄ, PIĘ, PIN, PONPĚ, PJA, PN, PIN, PÍN, PONPEN, PIN, PN, PONCompare EN spin, span
PAD: to fallПАДPADPAD, PÁDPADCompare EN case < LAT casus < cadere ~ EL πτῶσις < πῑ́πτειν (fall)
PAS: to tend, put out to pastureПАСPAS/Ś, PASZPAS, PÁSPAS, PAŠCompare EN pasture < LAT pascere, pantry < LAT panis; also: food, fodder, foster
PATR: to lookPATRZPATR/Ř, PÁTRPATRCompare LAT spectare
PEK: to bake, roastПЕК, ПЕЧPIEK, PIECZPE, PÉ, PEČ, PÉČPEK, PEČ/CCompare EN cook, kitchen, concoct < LAT coquere < EL πέπτειν
PIS: to writeПИСPISPS, PIS, PÍSPISCompare EN paint, picture < LAT pingere
PUL: fullПОЛНPEŁNPLN, PLŇPUNCompare EN full < DE voll ~ LAT plenus > plenty, complete
PLU: to flow, floatПЛЫ, ПЛАВPŁY, PŁAWPLOU, PLOV, PLY, PLAVPLU, PLOV, PLI, PLAVCompare EN flow, flood, float, fleet
POL: halfПОЛPÓŁ/L, POŁ/L, PALPŮL, POLPOL
PER: to press, push, quarrelПЕР, ПИР, ПР, ПОРPRZ, PIER, PAR, PÓR, PORPŘ, PÍR, PĚR, PEŘ, POR, PŮRPR, PIR, PAR, POR
PREG: to stretch, pull tightПРЯГ, ПРЯЖ, ПРУГ, ПРУЖPRZĄ, PRZĘG/Ż, PRZĄCZ, PRĘG/ŻPŘAH, PŘÁH, PŘEŽ, PRUH/Ž, PROUHPREG, PREZ, PRUG/Ž/Z
PRAV: straightПРАВPRAWPRAV, PRÁVPRAV, PORAVParallel structures with EN right, direct, regular, correct, rule, regent
PRED: before (space/time)ПЕРЕД, ПЕРЕЖ, ПРЕД,
ПРЕЖД
PRZEDZ, PRZÓD, PRZODPŘED, PŘÍD/ĎPRED, PRIJED, PREĐ
PREK: acrossПЕРЕК, ПЕРЕЧ, ПРЕКPRZEK, PRZECZPŘÍČPREK/Č, PRIJEK/Č
PROST: straight, simple, freeПРОСТБ ПРОЩPROST, PROŚPROST/Ť, PROŠŤPROST, PRAŠT
PUD: to chase, drivePĘDZPUD, POUZPUD
PUST: emptyПУСТ, ПУСК, ПУЩPUST, PUŚC, PUSZCZPUST, POUST, PUŠT, POUŠT, POUŠŤPUST, PUŠTParallel structures with EN -mit: admit, dismiss, emit, omit, permit, remit
PUT: path, road, wayПУТPĄTPUT, POUT/ŤPUT/ĆCompare EN find, path < EL πάτος, LAT pons
PYT: to askПЫТPYTPT, PYTPIT
RAD: row, straight line,
order, arrangement
РЯД, РЯЖRZĄDZ, RZĘDZŘAD/Ď/Z, ŘÁD, ŘED, ŘIZ, ŘÍD/ZRED/ĐCompare EN order, ordinal < LAT ordo
RAZ: to hit, strikeРАЗ, РАЖRAZ/Ź/ŻRAZ/Ž, RÁZ/ŽRAZ/Ž
REK: to speakРЕК, РЕЧ, РИЦ, РОК, РОЧRZEK, RZECH, ROK, ROCZ, RACZŘK/Č, ŘEK/Č, ŘÍK, ROK/ČREK/Č, RIJEK/Č, RJEČ, RIK/Č, ROK/Č
RET: to find, meetРЕТ, РЕЧŘETRET/Ć
ROB: child, slave, workРОБ, РАБ, РЕБROB, RÓB, RABROB, RÁB, RABROB, RABCompare EN orphan < LAT orbus < EL ὀρφανός, DE Erbe (heir), Arbeit, Sanskrit अर्भ ‎(árbha)
ROD: to give birth to, produceРОД, РОЖ, РОЖДRÓDZ/Ź, RODZ, RADZROD/Z, RŮDROD/T/Đ, RAĐ, ROŽDParallel structures with IE *ǵenh₁
ROST: to growРОСТ, РАСТ, РОЩ, РАЩROST, ROSZCZ, RÓŚ, ROŚCROST, RŮSTRAST, RAŠT
ROV: even, level, flatРОВ, РАВRÓWROVRAV
RUB: to cut, chopРУБRĄB, RĘB, RUBRUB, ROUBRUB
RUH: to move swiftly and violentlyРУХ, РУШRUCH, RUSZRUCH, ROUCH, RUŠRUŠ
RUK: hand, armРУК, РУЧ, РУШRĘK/CZ, RĄK/CZ, RUCZ/SZRUK/Č, ROUČRUK/Č
RUT: to throwRZUT/CŘÍT/C
RYV: to pull, tearРВ, РЫВRW, RYWRV, RYVRV, RIV
SAG: to reach out for sthСЯГ, СЯЖ, САЖ, СЯЗ, СУГSIĘG/Ż, SIĄG/Ż, SĄGSAH, SÁH, SÍ, SEŽSEG/Ž, SEZ
SAM: same, self, alone, onlyСАМSAMSAM, SÁMSAMCompare EN same, selfsame, DE selb, EL ὁμο- > homo-
SEB: oneselfСЕБ, СЯ, СЬ, СОБ, САБSIEB, SIĘ, SOB, SÓB, SABSEB, SE, SOBSEB, SE, SOB, SOPCompare EN self, LAT sibi
SED: to sitСЕД, СИД, САД, САЖ, САЖДSIĄ, SIAD, SIEDZ, SIOD, SADZ, SEDSED/Z, SÍD, SAD/Z, SÁD/ZSJED, SED, SID, SIJE, SAD/ĐCompare EN sit, seat, set, settle, saddle, LAT sedere > reside, sedentary, sediment
SEK: to cut, chopСЕК, СЕЧSIEK/CZSEK/Č, SÍSJEK/Č/C, SIJEKCompare EN saw, section, sector, segment < LAT secare
SIL: strengthСИЛSIŁ/LSIL, SÍLSIL
SYL: to sendСЛ, СЫЛ, СОЛSŁ, SYŁ, SEŁSL, SÍL, SELSL, ŠIL, SIL, SAO, ŠL
SLED: track, traceСЛЕДŚLAD, ŚLEDZSLED, SLÍDSLIJED, SLJED/Đ
SLU: be named, reputed,
renowned, to hear, listen
СЛЫ, СЛОВ, СЛАВ,
СЛУХ, СЛУШ, СЛЫШ
SŁY, SŁOW, SŁÓW,
SŁAW, SŁUCH/SZ, SŁYSZ
SLOU, SLU, SLY,
SLOV, SLAV, SLÁV,
SLUCH/Š, SLOUCH, SLECH,
SLYŠ
SLOV, SLIV/Š, SI, SLAV, SLUH/ŠCompare EN loud, listen
SPE: to advance rapidly,
progress, prosper
СПЕSPIE, ŚPIESPĚ, SPÍSPJE, SPIJE, SPICompare EN speed,
LAT sperare >
despair, prosperous
HRT>SRT: heart, middle, centerСЕРД, СЕРЕД, СРЕДSERD, SIERDZ, ŚROD,
ŚRÓD, ŚRED
SRD, STŘED/Ď, STŘÍDSRD, SRĐ, SRŽ,
SRIJED, SRED/Đ
Compare EN heart,
LAT cor, EL καρδία
STA: to standСТА, СТОЙ, СТО-,
СТАИ, СТАВ
STA, STOJ, STÓJ,
STOI, STAW
STA, STÁ, STE,
STOJ, STAV, STÁV
STA, STOJ, STAJ,
STAV
Compare EN stand,
DE stehen,
LAT stare > constant/station,
sistere > insist/persist,
EL στηναι, ιστάναι
STIG: to reach, overtakeСТИГŚCIGSTIG, STÍH/ŽSTIG/Z
STER: to spreadСТЕР, СТИР, СТОР,
СТОРОН, СТРАН
STRZ, ŚCIER, STWÓR,
STWORZ, STRZEN/Ń,
STRON/Ń
STŘ, STÍR, STĚR,
STOR, STRAN/Ň,
STRÁN/Ň
STR, STIR, STER,
STOR, STRAN
Compare EN strew,
LAT sternere > street/stratum
STRAD: to sufferСТРАДSTRADSTRÁD, STRASTRAD
STRG: to watch, guard,
be careful
СТЕРЕГ, СТОРОЖ, СТОРАЖ, СТРАЖSTRZEG/Ż, STRÓŻ, STROŻ, STRAŻSTŘÍH, STŘEH, STRAH/Ž, STRÁŽSTRAŽ
STROJ: to arrange,
put in order
СТРОЙ, СТРО-, СТРА-STRÓJ, STROJ, STROI, STRAJSTROJSTROJ, ŠTROJ
STUP: to stepСТУПSTĄP, STĘPSTUP, STOUPSTUPCompare EN stamp
SOP: to pour, strewСЫП, СП, СОПSU, SYP, SP, SEPSOU, SU, SYP, SP, SEP, SOPSU, SIP, SP, SAPCompare EN dissipate < LAT sipare
SUD: to judgeСУД, СУЖДSĄDZ, SĘDZSOUD, SUD, SUZSUD/Đ
SVET: light, illuminationСВЕТ, СВЕЧ, СВЕЩŚWIAT, ŚWIET/C/CZ, ŚWITSVĚT/C, SVÍT/C/Č, SVITSVIJET/Ć, SVJET/Ć, SVITCompare EN white
SVOJ: one's ownСВОЙ, СВО-, СВАИSWÓJ, SWOJ, SWOI, SWAJ, SWASVŮJ, SVOJ, SVÉ/ASVOJ, SVAJ, SVACompare LAT suus, sui > suicide, DE sein
TIAN: to cutCIĄ, CIĘ, CINTÍ, ŤA, TN, TÍN, TON
TUG: to pull, draw,
weight, heaviness
ТЯГ/Ж/З, ТУГ/ЖCIĄG/Ż, CIĘG/Ż, TĘG/Ż, TĄŻTAH/Ž, TÁH/Ž, TĚH/Ž, TÍH/Ž, TUH/Ž, TOUH/ŽTEG/Ž/Š/Z, TUG/ŽCompare EN draw, drag, tug
TOK: to flowТЕК/Ч, ТОК/ЧCEIK/CZ, TOK/CZ, TAK/CZTEK/Č, TOK/Č, TÉ, TÁČ/C, TĚK/ČTEK/Č, TIJEK, TJEC, TIC, TOK/Č, TAK
TISK: to squeeze, pressТИСК, ТЕСCISK, CIŻ, CIAS, CIEŚTISK, TĚSK, TÍSTISK, TISAK, TIŠT, TIJES, TJESK, TIJEŠCompare parallel
formations: EN press/print,
LAT premere,
DE drücken/drucken
TYK: to stick, poke, jabТК/Ч, ТЫК/Ч, ТОЧTK, TYK/CZ, TECZTK/Č, TYK/Č, TÝK, TEČTAK/Č, TIK/C, TAČ, TOČ
TRAT: to use up, waste, destroyТРАТ/ЧTRACTRAT/C, TRÁCTRAT/Ć
TRG: to pull, tearТОРГ/ЖTARGTRH/ŽTRG/ZCompare EN traction < LAT trahere
TRYM: to holdTZRYMTŘÍM
TVOR: to make, create, formТВОР, ТВАРTWORZ, TWÓR, TWARZTVOR/Ř, TVŮŘ, TVAR, TVÁR/ŘTVOR, TVAR
UK: to teach, to become
accustomed to
УК/Ч, ВЫК/ЧUK/CZ, WYK/CZUK/Č, VYK/ČUK/Č, VIK/Č
UM: mindУМUMUMUM
VAG: to weightВАГ/ЖWAG/H/ŻVAH/Ž, VÁH/ŽVAG/ŽCompare DE Waage/wiegen > EN weigh, also DE wichtig "important"
VAL: to rollВАЛWAL/ŁVAL, VÁLVALCompare EN a well,
also LAT volvere > evolve,
involve, revolve
VAZ: to tie, bindВЯЗ, УЗ, ЮЗ, ВЕНЗWIĄZ, WIĘZ/Ź, WĘZ, JUSZVAZ, VÁZ, VÍZ, VĚZ, UZ, BUZVEZ/S/Ž, UZ/ŽCompare EN bind/bandage/bond/bundle, DE binden/Band/ Bund/bündig/ Bündnis/Verband, also parallels with LAT ligare > ligament/ligature/ liaison/alliance/ obligation
VID: to knowВЕД/Ж/Щ, ВИД, ВЕЖД, ВЕСТWIAD/ST, WIEDZ/DŹ/ŚĆ/ŚC/SZCZVĚD, VÍD, VĚĎ/ST/ŠTVIJED/T/ST, VJED/Ž/ST/ŠT/ŠĆ, VID/ĐCompare EN wit/witness ~ DE wissen/Wissenschaft "science", EL ειδέναι/ιστορία>story/history, parallel formation with LAT testis > testify/attest, DE Zeuge/bezeugen
VED: to leadВЕД, ВОД, ВОЖДWIEDZ, WODZ, WÓDZ, WADZVÉ, VED, VOD/Z, VŮD, VAD, VÁDVED, VOD/Đ
VEL: big, large, much, manyВЕЛWIELVELVEL, VEO
VOL: to want, wishВЕЛ, ВОЛ, ВЛWOL, WALVEL, VŮL, VOLVEL, VOLCompare EN will ~ DE wollen/Wille/wählen, LAT velle>volition, voluntas>voluntary
VER: truth, faith,
belief, trust
ВЕРWIAR, WIERZVÍR, VĚR/ŘVJERCompare DE wahr, LAT verus > EN very, verity, veracity, verify
VES: allВЕС, ВЕЗ, ВСWSZVEŠ/S, VŠ/ŽSAV, SV, VAS/Z
VET: to speakВЕТ/Ч, ВИТ, ВЕЩIAT, WIECVĚT/ŤVJET/ŠT, VIJEĆ, EĆ
VEH>VEZ: carry by vehicle,
transport, accumulate,
a camp (of wagons)
ВЕЗ, ВОЗWIEŹ, WOZ/Ź, WÓZVÉZ, VOZ, VŮZVOZCompare EN weigh, wagon, way, LAT vehere
VID: to see, appearance,
pessimist, clairvoyant
ВИДWIDZVIDVID/ĐCompare EN view, visible, vista, visual prevision, television < videre; spectacle, spectator, specter, spectrum, species, prospect < specere; idea < ίδειν
VES: to hang, to weighВИС, ВЕС, ВЕШWIS, WIAS, WIES/Ś/SZVIS, VĚS/ŠVIS, VJES/ŠCompare EN weigh < LAT pendere, pound < pondus, ponder < ponderare
VLAD: to wield powerВОЛО, ВЛАД, ВЛАСТWŁOD/ŚĆ/ŚC, WŁADZ/ŚC/SZCZ/SVLAD, VLÁD, VLASTVLAD/Đ, VLAST/ŠĆCompare EN wield < DE walten ~ LAT valere: valid, valiant, value, avail, prevail, convalesce
TRK>VLK: pull, drag,
draw, delay,
-tract, -traction,
pull over, cover,
clothe, train, cloud
ВОЛОК, ВОЛАК, ВОЛОЧ,
ВЛЕК/Ч, ЛАК, ВЛАЧ
WLEK, WŁÓK/CZ, WŁOK/CZ, WŁACZVLÉK, VLEK/Č, VLAK, VLÁČVUČ, VLAK/ČSimilar to the productive LAT trahere > tract compounds, Latin TR is Slavic VL
VOD: water, undulate,
abundant, inundate,
hyraulic, hydrology,
hydrate
ВОДWODZ, WÓD, WÓDŹ, WADVODVOD/T/ĐCompare LAT unda, EL ύδωρ
VOL: to callWOŁVOL
VR: to close, link,
bind, put in, hide,
tie together, lace up
ВЕР, ВОР, ВРWRZ, WIERZ, WAR, WR, WÓR, WORZ, FORVŘ/R, VÍR, VĚR, VEŘ, VORVR, VER, VIR, VOR, VARCompare EN weir < DE wehren ~ LAT verire < aperire, EN aperture, overt, overture, operire, cooperire, cover, covert
VAR: to boil, digest, cookВАРWRZ, WARZVŘ, VAR/Ř, VÁŘVR, VOR, VARCompare EN burn < *wer-
[S]PR>VRH>VRŠ: top, end,
complete, execute,
carry out, accomplish,
manage, commit,
perpetrate
ВЕРХ, ВЕРШWIERZCHVRCH, VRŠVRH/ŠCompare EN super, superior, supreme, sovereignty. [S]PR>SVR
VREM: time, weatherВРЕМЯ, ВРЕМЕНVRIJEME, VREMEN
VERG: to throw, expose (ex+poser),
to subject (aus+setzen),
outcast, project (pro+jacere),
draft (Scand ut+kast),
throw over,
subject (sub+jacere, under+werfen),
scatter, distribute,
dissipate, destroy
ВЕРГ, ВЕРЖWIERZGVRH/ŽVRG/Ž
VRT: turn, vertebra,
vertigo, avert,
aversion, convert,
converse, divert,
inverse, perfert,
perverse, subversive,
wend/went, neck/collar,
reflexive, a turn of
chorus/stanza
ВЕРТ, ВЕРЕТ, ВОРОТ/Ч,
ВОРАЧ, ВРАТ/Щ
WART, WIERC, WRZEC, WROT, WRÓT/C, WRACVRT, VŘET, VRAT/C, VRÁT/CVRT, VRET, VRAT/ĆCompare LAT vertere
VYS: high, haughtyВЫС/ШWYS/Ś/Ż/SZVYS/Š, VÝS/ŠVIS/Š
ZD, ZID: build (building,
uplifting, improving,
edify, edifice,
instruct, construct)
ЗД, ЗИД, ЗИЖД, ЗОДZDZED/ĎZD, ZIDCompare EN edify < LAT aedificare, EN struct < LAT struere ~ DE bauen ~ PL budować
HEM>ZEM: earth, land, groundЗЕМZIEM, ZIOMZEMZEMCompare EN humus, exhume, humble, humility, humiliate < LAT humus
ZL: badЗЛZLZAO, ZL
GNA>ZNA: to know (experience,
find out, identify,
realise, recognise,
distinguish, be known,
announce, testify,
acknowledge, confess, profess)
ЗНАZNAZNÁ, ZNAZNACompare EN note < [g]nos[cere], EN sign/assign/designate < [si]GNUM > Slavic ZNAM ~ DE [bezei]chn[en]/auszeichenen/Zeichen. EN know ~ DE kennen, LAT gnoscere, EN notice, notion, cognizant, recognize, acquaintance, EL γιγνώσκειν > EN [a]gnostic, diagnosis, prognosis
ZR: to seeЗР, ЗИР, ЗЕР, ЗОРJRZ, ZR, ZDR, ZIER, ZER, ZWIER, ZÓR, ZORZZR/Ř, ZÍR, ZORZR, ZIR, ZORCompare EN mirror < LAT mirare, DE Spiegel < LAT specere, EN specimen, speculation < LAT specere, EN theater/theory < EL θεασθαι (see), EN suspect < LAT sub+specere ~ EL υπό+οπτεύειν, EN despise < LAT de+specere, EN perspicacious < LAT per+specere, EN provident < LAT pro+videre ~ DE vor+sichtig, DE durch+sichtig (transparent)
ZV: to callЗВ, ЗЫВ, ЗОВZW, ZEW, ZOWZV, ZEVZV, ZIV, ZOVCompare EN provocation < LAT vocare, vocativus, irrevocable, revoke, repeal < FR rapeler, a calling (vocation) (DE Beruf < rufen, HU hivatás < hívni)
GI>ŽY: live (heal,
scar, fat, stout,
fertile, use,
consume, eat,
digest, pasture,
enjoy, gain,
profit, abundant,
grain, bait)
ЖИВŹYW, GOI, HOJŽIV, ŽÍ, HOJŽIV, GOJCompare EN victuals, viand < LAT vivere, EN quick (-silver), vivid, vivacious, revive, survive, vita, vital, EL ζην, ζωον, βιος, EN life < DE Leib "belly/body", EN bodice < DE Leibchen
GR>ŽR: devourЖР, ЖЕР, ЖОР, ГОРŻR, ŹR, ŻER, ŻAR, GARŽR/Ř, ŽÍR, ŽER, HRŽDR, ŽDER, GRCompare EN voracious, devour, omnivorous < LAT vor: vorare > Slavic gr. Croatian has intrusive -d-. EN gorge
Michael Campbell

Michael Campbell

Polyglot, phonologist, linguist specialising in Formosan, Proto-Austronesian, Sinitic, Slavic, typology, IPA, and L2. Does Glossika training daily.

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Hack Slavic Vocabulary
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